Romans 10:1-7
Rom 10:1 (KJV)
Brethren, my heart's desire and prayer to God for Israel is, that they might be saved.

Paul begins this chapter by stating that his heart’s desire is that those of the nation of Israel would become saved. Paul being a Jew had a strong desire that the nation’s leaders would not continue to follow those who did not recognize Christ and that had a hand in His crucifixion. Paul had desired that the nation of Israel would embrace their Messiah. Even though salvation comes by predestination, Paul shows us here that praying for someone’s salvation is not wrong.

Rom 10:2 (KJV)
For I bear them record that they have a zeal of God, but not according to knowledge.

Israel had a zeal for God and His Law but they totally misunderstood the reason the Law was given. This is why Paul stated that they had zeal but it was not according to knowledge, that is, knowledge of the real way to God. They believed that keeping the law was the real way to please God and they thought that they had an eternal relationship with God through the law. This of course was not true. The law served the same purpose for Israel as it did for the entire world. It was given to show that man could not be righteous before God and therefore needed a Savior.

Rom 10:3 (KJV)
For they being ignorant of God's righteousness, and going about to establish their own righteousness, have not submitted themselves unto the righteousness of God.

The word “ignorant” in this verse carries with it the meaning of “not knowing, not understanding, or disregarded.” It is something that for 1400 years, Israel had the guidance of God and the prophets and yet they did not understand God’s righteousness. Instead of them acceding to God’s Law, they instead began to write their own laws. We can still see those laws today in two commentary sets, one is the Babylonian Talmud and the other is the Jerusalem Talmud. The Babylonian Talmud is the favored one which is sought out when something is needed concerning something in the law. The problem is that the Talmud overshadows the Hebrew Scriptures because it contains much rabbinical comment which is more sought after than the Scriptures. This is why Israel had submitted itself to the commentaries by their leaders and not the word of God. Unfortunately many churches and denominations have also done this. They have looked to their confessions and leaders as the authorities, even if they differ from the Scriptures. Many have set up their own righteousness in this manner.

Rom 10:4 (KJV)
For Christ is the end of the law for righteousness to every one that believeth.

The law prescribed certain ceremonies which must be kept and that all the males must appear before God in Jerusalem three times a year.
(Exo 23:17 KJV) Three times in the year all thy males shall appear before the Lord GOD. Then there are all the different sacrifices which had to be kept. In this verse we are told that those who are born again in Christ, have fulfilled every aspect of the law and never again need to partake in any of the ceremonies. Christ perfectly fulfilled the righteous demands of God’s holy law and that fulfillment was imputed to the believer upon salvation. So the believer is as if he or she kept the law perfectly. This is why we are told that Christ was the end of the law because after His final sacrifice for sin, there would be no more reason to keep any aspects of the law. A person cannot be more saved than completely. We have full salvation in Christ and that is why the temple was destroyed in 70 AD because the temple system, which typified Christ and His sacrifice, was now invalid since Christ fulfilled every aspect of the law. This is why those who are looking for some future temple to be built based on Ezekiel 40-48, are going to be disappointed because it will not happen. Any Christian who looks eagerly for another temple to be built and commence with animal sacrifices reinstated by the unbelieving Jews are actually spitting in the face of Christ and His final sacrifice. The theology of unbelief should never be followed by any Christian.

Rom 10:5 (KJV)
For Moses describeth the righteousness which is of the law, That the man which doeth those things shall live by them.

(Lev 18:5 KJV) Ye shall therefore keep my statutes, and my judgments: which if a man do, he shall live in them: I am the LORD. Those who can keep the law perfectly on their own do not need a Savior because they are establishing their own eternal life by keeping the law perfectly. This person is considered as one living in the law. This is what Israel thought they were doing. They did not realize that no one could keep the law perfectly and in its entirety, yet they believed they garnered the approval of God by keeping it, when in reality, they were breaking the law every day they existed. They were deceived in that just because they received the law, they believed the law was their way to eternal life.

Rom 10:6-7 (KJV)
But the righteousness which is of faith speaketh on this wise, Say not in thine heart, Who shall ascend into heaven? (that is, to bring Christ down from above:) {7} Or, Who shall descend into the deep? (that is, to bring up Christ again from the dead.)

In continuing his discourse from verse 5, Paul makes a marked distinction in the righteousness of keeping the law versus the righteousness of faith which comes by Grace. Those who keep the law may ask how one can please God and they will therefore ask who will go up to Heaven. This is what the Jews asked when faced with a difficult question.
(Job 11:7-8 KJV) Canst thou by searching find out God? canst thou find out the Almighty unto perfection? {8} It is as high as heaven; what canst thou do? deeper than hell; what canst thou know? In the Christian faith, we can easily accept the fact that Christ came to Earth and died for His people and was then resurrected. The statements in Romans 10:6-7 indicate that these were questions which the Jews dealt with according to their law. (Deu 30:12 KJV) It is not in heaven, that thou shouldest say, Who shall go up for us to heaven, and bring it unto us, that we may hear it, and do it? Then they would ask who would go down into the deep? In other words, they were seeking to find answers from both heaven above and the deep below. This was because they followed the law and did not know how to please God, so they thought by going up to heaven, they could find out how to please Him. This is why Paul brings in the righteousness of faith because those in Christ have already pleased God. These are difficult verses to interpret but I believe this is the general picture which is in view, the righteousness by the law versus the righteousness by faith.