Matthew 22:31-35

Mat 22:31 (KJB)
But as touching the resurrection of the dead, have ye not read that which was spoken unto you by God, saying,

Jesus continues His dialogue with the Sadducees concerning the resurrection. Jesus goes to the Scriptures on this subject as He does all. There are quite a number of Hebrew Scriptures which speak of the resurrection such as Psalms 49:14-15. (Psa 49:14-15 KJV) Like sheep they are laid in the grave; death shall feed on them; and the upright shall have dominion over them in the morning; and their beauty shall consume in the grave from their dwelling. {15} But God will redeem my soul from the power of the grave: for he shall receive me. Selah. However, the Sadducees did not accept the Hebrew Scriptures outside the five books of Moses. So what Jesus does is to direct them to a passage in Exodus 3:6 which speaks of the resurrection.

Mat 22:32 (KJB)
I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob? God is not the God of the dead, but of the living.

(Exo 3:6 KJV) Moreover he said, I am the God of thy father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob. And Moses hid his face; for he was afraid to look upon God. In Exodus 3:6 the Scripture is stating that God is the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. If you notice, He did not say that He “was” their God, which means that this is in the present tense because they are still alive. This truth is stated in both verses which means the Old Testament Saints are as alive as the New Testament Saints. God is not the God of the dead as if He were some type of keeper of the dead but those whom He has redeemed from the time of Abel are alive and well in Heaven. Heaven is not a place of the dead but of the living.

Mat 22:33 (KJB)
And when the multitude heard this, they were astonished at his doctrine.

The people who heard this were overwhelmed with astonishment because of what they heard. The Sadducees had taught that there is no resurrection, angel, or spirits and Jesus has just completely destroyed that belief by stating that God is the God of the living and not the dead. He also gave three names that every Israelite would have been familiar with especially the name of Abraham. Remember how the Pharisees had argued with Jesus when Jesus told them that Abraham rejoiced to see His day. (John 8:57 KJV) Then said the Jews unto him, Thou art not yet fifty years old, and hast thou seen Abraham? They knew Abraham lived about 2000 years ago and what a realization for the people to know that he was still alive. This would have definitely caused them to be astonished.

Mat 22:34 (KJB)
But when the Pharisees had heard that he had put the Sadducees to silence, they were gathered together.

Put…to silence - Muzzle or tie shut

The example that Jesus gave was so strong that the Sadducees were unable to even offer a comeback. In fact they were so stymied that their mouths were as if they were muzzled or as if someone tied them shut. How could they answer to something like that with their dead theology? So now the Pharisees heard that Jesus had silenced the Sadducees so what they did was gather themselves together in a conclave and discussed what they could ask Jesus next to try and trip Him up. If there is one principle that shows up concerning evil, it is that it is persistent.

Mat 22:35 (KJB)
Then one of them, which was a lawyer, asked him a question, tempting him, and saying,

Then one of the group who was a lawyer with a nefarious agenda had asked Jesus a question. Now the term lawyer is not one that is like Perry Mason, a lawyer of the civil law but the lawyer here is one that is an expert in the law of Moses and that is why at this time he was the one asking this particular question. Mark has this person as a Scribe which technically there was no difference between the lawyer and scribe. (Mark 12:28 KJV) And one of the scribes came, and having heard them reasoning together, and perceiving that he had answered them well, asked him, Which is the first commandment of all? The word “tempt” in this verse denotes someone who is looking to actually investigate a matter and not necessarily to try and find something to condemn the person for.