Luke 13:6-10

Luke 13:6 (KJB)
He spake also this parable; A certain man had a fig tree planted in his vineyard; and he came and sought fruit thereon, and found none.

Jesus then begins to tell another parable about the spiritual condition of Israel. He states that a certain man planted a fig tree in his vineyard. (Isa 5:7 KJV) For the vineyard of the LORD of hosts is the house of Israel, and the men of Judah his pleasant plant: and he looked for judgment, but behold oppression; for righteousness, but behold a cry. According to Isaiah 5:7, the vineyard of the Lord was the house of Israel. The fig tree which was planted in the vineyard would have been Jerusalem because it was the center of learning and it was where the temple was. (1 Ki 11:36 KJV) And unto his son will I give one tribe, that David my servant may have a light alway before me in Jerusalem, the city which I have chosen me to put my name there. It was the place where God chose to place His name. The certain man who had that fig tree planted was God Himself. He had looked upon Israel to see if it was bearing any fruit and it bore none.

Luke 13:7 (KJB)
Then said he unto the dresser of his vineyard, Behold, these three years I come seeking fruit on this fig tree, and find none: cut it down; why cumbereth it the ground?

In this verse we have the dresser of the vineyard who would be the Lord Jesus Christ Himself. God the Father then tells God the Son that for three years He came seeking fruit and told Him to cut it down, that is, destroy it because it did not bear any fruit and it is only a burden to the ground that it is planted on. It takes up ground which could be used for something else which could bear fruit. The three years could be referring to the time that Jesus and John the Baptist had preached the Kingdom of God and no fruit came from it.

Luke 13:8 (KJB)
And he answering said unto him, Lord, let it alone this year also, till I shall dig about it, and dung it:

Then the vinedresser says to the owner, who has also been very patient up to this point, to allow it to stand for one more year. Jesus is stating that the one year will include time for His death, burial, and resurrection and maybe after those events, there will be some spiritual fruit. Two principles shine through and that is God is merciful and long suffering and that some people do receive a second chance in hearing the Gospel.

Luke 13:9 (KJB)
And if it bear fruit, well: and if not, then after that thou shalt cut it down.

Then if the message of Christís death and resurrection did not bring the repentance and salvation to these people, then their fate will be to be cut down as a tree. Now if you notice that this parable does not give a second time reference as it did with the three years. This is because the judgment of physical Israel came in 70 A.D. when it was completely destroyed some 37 years later.

Luke 13:10 (KJB)
And he was teaching in one of the synagogues on the sabbath.

Jesus taught in many of the synagogues and this particular synagogue is unnamed. The rulers in this synagogue were just as hardened as were the rulers in most of the other synagogues. These rulers showed how difficult it would be to repent and receive the grace and mercy of God.