Daniel 6:1-7
Daniel 6:1
It pleased Darius to set over the kingdom an hundred and twenty princes, which should be over the whole kingdom;
As soon as Darius had taken over the kingdom of Babylon, he immediately partitioned the kingdom into 120 provinces or states.  He then appointed 120 princes, one would rule in each of the provinces.  This would make the rule of the kingdom much easier since each province would be ruled by a prince and would no doubt have the military available and courts in case of any treasonous activity and much easier to rule a small province than a large kingdom by one man.
Daniel 6:2
And over these three presidents; of whom Daniel was first: that the princes might give accounts unto them, and the king should have no damage.
Then to further streamline the governing of this great province, Darius had appointed three presidents which were ruling overlords of the 120 princes.  This way if there were any situations arising in any of the provinces, then the problem could be handled by the presidents.  The word “damage” carries with it the meaning of “loss or hurt.”  The presidents handled situations in which the king was insulated from any loss or damage done to the kingdom, whether it be financial loss or any other type of losses such as property losses.
Daniel 6:3
Then this Daniel was preferred above the presidents and princes, because an excellent spirit was in him; and the king thought to set him over the whole realm.
Darius had insight into character traits and he saw Daniel as one having an excellent spirit.  The word “excellent” carries with it the meaning of “preeminent or exceeding.”  He was far above the others in wisdom and knowledge.  Probably the other presidents were younger and were more arrogant and that is why the king saw in Daniel a humble and greater spirit.  The king proceeded to make Daniel the first president over the entire kingdom.  This position might have been the next one below the king.  It may have been akin to the office of Vice-President in the USA.  The fact that Daniel was made first president probably caused the spirit of jealousy to rise up in the other ones and that caused them to act against Daniel. 
Daniel 6:4
Then the presidents and princes sought to find occasion against Daniel concerning the kingdom; but they could find none occasion nor fault; forasmuch as he was faithful, neither was there any error or fault found in him.
Then it was not too long after Daniel was raised into his position that the other presidents and some of the province princes began to seek an occasion against Daniel.  The word “occasion” carries with it the meaning of “cause or reason” to bring some type of accusation against Daniel so he would be removed from office.  Their initial efforts failed to find anything that they could accuse him of.  He was a faithful public servant and they could find nothing they could accuse him of concerning his duties as first president.  His character was one of honesty and integrity so their efforts to dig up dirt on him was fruitless.
Daniel 6:5
Then said these men, We shall not find any occasion against this Daniel, except we find it against him concerning the law of his God.
Since they knew that Daniel was captured by Nebuchadnezzar from Judah, they knew that there might be something in the laws that Daniel followed which would have been the law of God.  They then went to work to find something they could accuse Daniel of by comparing the law of God to the law of the Medes and Persians.  Well they could not find anything so they needed to invent something to help them find a cause against Daniel. 
Daniel 6:6
Then these presidents and princes assembled together to the king, and said thus unto him, King Darius, live for ever.
Then they finally found something where they can get an accusation against Daniel and hopefully have him removed from office.  Now once they agreed on a plan to destroy Daniel, they now bring the plan to the king to get the final approval, even though the king did not know that he was being used as part of their plot against Daniel.
Daniel 6:7
All the presidents of the kingdom, the governors, and the princes, the counsellers, and the captains, have consulted together to establish a royal statute, and to make a firm decree, that whosoever shall ask a petition of any God or man for thirty days, save of thee, O king, he shall be cast into the den of lions.
Then these two presidents knew how to gain a foothold and make an accusation against Daniel.  They had appealed to the vanity of the king making him the sole source of any petitions by anyone in the kingdom.  They also made sure that they included in their prohibition that no petition can be made to any God.  This would have puffed up the king and for a while he was not in his right in mind by thinking that he had the power to grant all petitions.  The presidents came to him and told him that they met with all the lower magistrates such as captains or counselors.  This was untrue and a false statement because the beginning of their approach to the king, they said “all presidents” which would have to have included Daniel and there is no way he would have approved of making petition to the king instead of God.  As first president if Daniel knew about this writing, he could have destroyed it but since he was their target, he was left out of it completely until they were able to get the king’s approval.  They wanted Daniel dead so they could rule and gain wealth at the same time.  So they made the penalty for violating the decree death by being tossed into the den of lions.  They limited the time that the decree would be in force to 30 days knowing that they did not need any more time than that because they obviously knew Daniel’s daily routine of prayer.