Daniel 3:7-12
Daniel 3:7
Therefore at that time, when all the people heard the sound of the cornet, flute, harp, sackbut, psaltery, and all kinds of musick, all the people, the nations, and the languages, fell down and worshipped the golden image that Nebuchadnezzar the king had set up.
Since a death penalty was now attached to those who refused to bow down, once they heard the music, they all began to bow down and worship the image.  It would not have been too hard for this group to bow down since they were all pagans and idolaters anyway.  It was just another event with religious overtones.  However, the difference here was the death penalty associated with non-compliance.
Daniel 3:8
Wherefore at that time certain Chaldeans came near, and accused the Jews.
There were probably informants planted in the group to see if there were any who would not obey the king’s edict.  Well some of the Chaldeans came to the king and made accusations against some of the Jews who refused to partake in any of the idolatrous events taking place.
Daniel 3:9
They spake and said to the king Nebuchadnezzar, O king, live for ever.
Here they appeared before the king to give him the information on three who refused to bow down to his image.  No matter how obedient to God we want to be, when we are, there will always be someone to try and punish us for standing on our Christian principles.  2 Timothy 3:12 (KJV)   Yea, and all that will live godly in Christ Jesus shall suffer persecution.
Daniel 3:10
Thou, O king, hast made a decree, that every man that shall hear the sound of the cornet, flute, harp, sackbut, psaltery, and dulcimer, and all kinds of musick, shall fall down and worship the golden image:
Now they repeat the decree back to the king, not that he forgot what he commanded but to add force to their case by including the decree in their accusation before the king.  They made sure they included the phrase “every man” since it would have included those who held lower positions as well as those who held high positions in the government.  No one was exempt from the king’s decree.
Daniel 3:11
And whoso falleth not down and worshippeth, that he should be cast into the midst of a burning fiery furnace.
Now they include the part of the decree that those who refuse to worship the image are to be cast into the fiery furnace.  They definitely would not leave that part out.  The ones making the accusation may have been jealous over the fact that they had a part in helping to interpret the king’s dream.  It could have been some of the wise men who were deficient in spiritual matters that made the accusations and were hoping to get rid of Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego and maybe to take their place of authority.
Daniel 3:12
There are certain Jews whom thou hast set over the affairs of the province of Babylon, Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego; these men, O king, have not regarded thee: they serve not thy gods, nor worship the golden image which thou hast set up.
Then these men seem like they are almost blaming the king by saying “whom thou has set.”  It is like Adam saying to God, “the women whom thou gavest.”  They mention Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego by name to the king and he might have not known them as well as he did Daniel.  So they make three accusations against them which would all be capital offenses in their own right.  Their first accusation was that they did not regard the king.  They showed no respect for his orders or authority to obey his commands.  They basically accused them of rebellion against the king.  The second accusation was that they did not worship the gods of Babylon namely Marduk, their chief deity, and the lesser gods in the Babylonian pantheon.  Then the third accusation they made was their refusal to bow down and worship the image when the music sounded.  All three of these accusations could be considered treason and punishable by death, especially with an ancient monarch.